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The Texas Timeshare Act

Timeshares have been and continue to be a popular method to secure affordable vacation destinations. For timeshare properties located in or offered for sale in Texas, Texas Property Code Chapter 221, also known as the “Texas Timeshare Act” (“Act”), governs and regulates  timeshare interests.  “Timeshare interests” are comprised of “estates”, “properties”, and “uses”.

A “timeshare estate” is any arrangement under which the purchaser receives a right to occupy a timeshare property along with an interest in real property. A “timeshare property” is one or more accommodations and any related amenities that are subject to the same timeshare instrument, and any other property rights that may co-exist.  An “accommodation” includes apartments, condominiums, cooperative units, hotel or motel rooms, cabins, lodges, or other private or commercial dwellings attached to real property.  An “amenity” includes any common areas, recreational facilities, or other common components of timeshare property.  A “timeshare use” is any arrangement which allows the purchaser the right to use timeshare property, but does not grant any other interest in such property.

It must be noted that any timeshare interest located outside of Texas is not subject to the Act’s provisions relating to the creation of the timeshare regime (subchapter B) and the rules relating to a timeshare owners’ association (subchapter I). So long as out-of-state timeshare interests are offered for sale in Texas, then the provisions of the Act relating to registration (subchapter C), disclosures and advertisements (subchapter D), cancellation and rescission rights (subchapter E), exchange programs (subchapter F), escrow deposits (subchapter G), deceptive trade practices (subchapter H), and the transfer or termination of timeshare interests (subchapter J), will apply.

Only timeshare properties in existence on or after August 26, 1985, are subject to the Act. There are also certain types of offerings and dispositions which are exempt from the Act.

If a timeshare property is subject to the Act, a person may not offer or dispose of a timeshare interest unless a timeshare plan is registered with the Texas Real Estate Commission. “Offer” means any advertisement, inducement, solicitation, or encouragement to attempt to cause a  purchase of a timeshare interest.  “Dispose” means a voluntary transfer of any legal or equitable timeshare interest.  Offering or disposing of a timeshare interest which has not been registered is a Class A misdemeanor.  However, it is permissible for a developer to accept a reservation and deposit from a prospective purchaser on an unregistered property and place the deposit in a segregated escrow account with an independent escrow agent, so long as such deposit is fully refundable upon request by the purchaser.

Any advertisement or promotion related to a timeshare interest offering must comply with the Contest and Gift Giveaway Act (Chapter 621 of the Texas Business & Commerce Code). Any advertisement must make it clear that it is soliciting purchasers of timeshare interests and anyone whose name is obtained during a promotion may be solicited, and must set forth the developer’s name and the name and address of any marketing company involved in the promotion, unless affiliated with the developer.  A developer must also provide a timeshare disclosure statement to any prospective purchaser before entering into a purchase agreement.  The required contents of a timeshare disclosure statement can be found in Section 221.032(b) of the Act.

If the timeshare interest includes an exchange program, the party making the offer must also provide an exchange program disclosure statement. The details of the exchange program disclosure statement can be found at Section 221.033(d) of the Act.  An “exchange program” is any method, arrangement, or procedure for the voluntary exchange of timeshare interests between owners.  Typically the company administering an exchange program is not responsible for misrepresentations of the developer or for the denial of any exchange privileges.  So long as the developer’s contracts and sale documents have been approved by the Texas Real Estate Commission or a licensed Texas attorney, the developer may charge a reasonable fee for completing such forms, including the disclosure statements, purchase agreement, and closing documents.

Section 221.043(c) of the Act sets out the requirements for the timeshare purchase contract. The contract must advise the purchaser of his or her right to cancel the contract without penalty.  This right to cancel extends through the 5th day following the purchaser’s execution and receipt of the contract or the purchaser’s receipt of the timeshare disclosure statement, whichever is later.  The cancellation right cannot be waived.

Enforcement of the Act may be accomplished through the filing of an administrative complaint with the Texas Real Estate Commission or by private enforcement through the Courts. Several violations of the Act also constitute violations of the Texas Deceptive Trade Practices – Consumer Protection Act (Texas Business & Commerce Code Section 17.41 et. seq.).  Upon a finding of a material violation of the Act, the Texas Real Estate Commission may suspend or revoke a developer’s registration, place it on probation, issue a reprimand, impose an administrative penalty of up to $10,000.00, or take any other disciplinary action authorized by the Act.

Scott Alagood is Board Certified by the Texas Board of Legal Specialization in both Commercial and Residential Real Estate Law and may be reached at alagood@dentonlaw.com and www.dentonlaw.com.

 

 

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Texas allows lenders to make “reverse mortgages” which are secured by a borrower’s homestead.  A reverse mortgage is an instrument that allows a borrower to borrow money against the equity in his or her home in a single installment, in annuity-like installments, or a line-of-credit available on demand.  Like home equity loans, reverse mortgages are subject to a litany of state constitutional restrictions.

A reverse mortgage may only be created voluntarily by the borrower through a written contract.  Each owner and each owner’s spouse must join and consent to the reverse mortgage.  A reverse mortgage may not be made unless the borrower or borrower’s spouse is at least 62 years of age at the time the loan is made.

If the reverse mortgage provides for the annuity-like string of payments, those payments must be made at regularly scheduled intervals.  However, the lender may also make advances on the borrower’s behalf where the borrower fails to pay taxes and assessments, insurance, repairs to the secured dwelling, or any lien with priority over the reverse mortgage.  The proceeds received from a reverse mortgage may be used for anything.  A reverse mortgage will accrue interest at either a fixed or variable rate of interest which may be compounded during the term of the loan.  Most reverse mortgages will accrue interest at a variable rate.  Interest on interest is permitted, and will typically compound monthly.  However, during the term of the loan, there are no monthly repayment requirements.  The principal balance and accrued interest do not become due and payable until one of the following occur:

  • All borrowers have died;
  • The property securing the loan is sold or transferred;
  • All borrowers cease occupying the secured property for longer than 12 consecutive months without prior written approval of the lender;
  • The borrower defaults on an obligation specified in the loan documents to repair and maintain the secured property, pay taxes and assessments, or insure the secured property;
  • The borrower commits actual fraud in connection with the loan; or
  • The borrower fails to maintain the priority of the reverse mortgage after receiving notice from the lender and an opportunity to cure.

Unless voluntarily repaid, when the note becomes due the lender may only satisfy the outstanding balance of principal and accrued interest from foreclosure of the secured property.  Reverse mortgages may only be foreclosed through a lawsuit for judicial foreclosure or an expedited legal proceeding allowing foreclosure under the deed of trust.  Neither the note nor any deficiency occurring from the foreclosure sale may be satisfied from the borrower’s estate.  Said another way, the borrower is not personally liable for the repayment of the loan.

A reverse mortgage may not be made unless the borrower and each owner receive counseling regarding the advisability and availability of reverse mortgages and other financial alternatives.  The borrower and each owner must attest in writing that they each received the required counseling.  If the lender fails to make any required loan advances after receiving notice from the borrower, then the lender forfeits all principal and interest on the reverse mortgage.

Reverse mortgages are not for everyone.  Since the loan will not be typically repaid until after the death of the borrower or the sale of the home, family and heirs should be consulted before entering into the loan.  Life insurance may be an available option to use to pay off the reverse mortgage upon the borrower’s death.  Reverse mortgages may include high closing costs.  Because of a life expectancy factor in the loan repayment formula, less money will be available from the loan for younger borrowers.  Also, if a reverse mortgage is obtained, seniors may be prohibited from receiving available deferrals of ad valorem taxes.

Available alternative options to a reverse mortgage may include:

  • Cashing out whole or variable life insurance policies on the borrower;
  • Obtaining a home equity loan;
  • Selling or leasing the property; or
  • Applying for tax credits and tax abatements for seniors.

While no one plans to run out of money during retirement, the longer folks live, the harder it becomes to sustain the necessary income to provide for living expenses.  A reverse mortgage is one option that may be considered for seniors needing addition income.  However, care should be taken to make sure that all of the resulting consequences have been considered before entering into a reverse mortgage.

Amendments to the Texas Constitution concerning reverse mortgages are currently scheduled for approval during the November 5, 2013, general election.  If approval, these amendments will become effective upon proclamation by Governor Perry.

R. Scott Alagood is board certified in Residential and Commercial Real Estate Law by the Texas Board of Legal Specialization.  Scott may be contacted at alagood@dentonlaw.com and http://www.dentonlaw.com.

 

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